Macedonia - Historical RecordGeneral Information about Republic of Macedonia
Alot of struggles, injustices, sufferings and divisions have been impressed into the historical memory of the Macedonian people, but also shinning dates of national liberation uprisings and struggles for national freedom and emancipation.
Macedonians are descendants of the Slavic tribes which settled this areas in the middle of the VII-th century. Having mainly settled the territory of the old state of Philip and Alexander the Great, they were named Macedonian Slavs, and later during their national renaissance period, they assumed the name of Macedonians.
Slavic literacy started to expand during the IX-th century, thanks to the great teachers, the two brothers – Cyril and Methodius. Their greatest students were Climent and Naum. Climent is credited for the composing of the simplified version of the Slavic alphabet, and establishing the first Slavic university in Ohrid in 893.
The first Macedonian state was established in 976 and was headed by the Emperor Samuel. Ohrid was the capital of his state. But the victory against the old Byzantine and Bulgarian conquerors lasted only until 1018, and ever since, an alternating rule between Byzantium, Bulgaria and Serbia, and shorter rulings from some European countries as well, was imposed.
Since the end of the XIV-th century, a long-lasting rule of the Turkish Empire started, resulting in numerous liberation uprisings by the Macedonian people. The most famous is the uprising led by the national hero – Karpos, in 1689.
During the XVIII-th and XIX-th centuries, the national liberation movement strengthened and was expressed through the struggle for independence, development of the Macedonian language and other national and cultural characteristics. In 1893 the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO) was formed, and its main tasks were to achieve freedom and political autonomy for Macedonia. It was led by the brave heroes Dame Gruev, Goce Delcev and others. As a result of its liberal objectives, the great Ilinden Uprising started on the second of August, 1903, when the Krusevo Republic, headed by Nikola Karev, was established. Unfortunately, it was very soon destroyed by a strong repression on the part of Turkish Empire.
The Balkan Wars and World War I, didn’t bring freedom to Macedonian people. Macedonia remained under alien rule, divided into three parts. But on the 11-th October, 1941 the Macedonian people rose and after four years of national liberation war, they victoriously achieved their freedom. Macedonian people declared their statehood within the present territory of Macedonia, at the founding Conference of the National Assembly that took place at the Prohor Pcinski monastery on the second of August, 1944.