Alexander the Great Timeline

Alexander the Great Timeline


356 B.C.

  • Alexander born in Pella. The exact date in unknown, but probably either 20 or 26 July.
  • Philip captures Potidaea.
  • Parmenio defeats Paeonians and Illyrians.

354 B.C.

  • Demosthenes attacks idea of a ‘crusade against Persia’.
  • Mid-summer: Philip captures Mathone: loses an eye in the battle.

352 B.C.

  • Artabazus and Memnon refugees with Philip, who now emerges as potential leader of crusade against Persia.

351 B.C.

  • Philip’s fleet harassing Athenian shipping.
  • Demosthenes’ First Philippic.

348 B.C.

  • August: Philip captures Olynthus.
  • Aeschines’ attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.

346 B.C.

  • March: embassy to Philip from Athens.
  • Halus besieged by Parmeniio
  • April: peace of Philocrates ratified.
  • Second Athenian embassy held up till July.
  • July: Philip occupies Thermopylae.
  • August: Philip admitted to seat on Amphictyonic Council, and presides over Pythian Games.
  • Isocrates publishes Philippus.

344 B.C.

  • Philip appointed Archon of Thessaly for life.

343 B.C.

  • Non-aggression pact between Philip and Artaxerxes Ochus.
  • Trail and acquittal of Aeschines.

343 B.C.

  • Aristotle invited to Macedonia al Alexander’s tutor.

342 B.C.

  • Olympia’s brother Alexander succeeds to throne of Epirus with Philip’s backing.

340 B.C.

  • Congress of Allies meets in Athens.
  • Demosthenes awarded gold crown at Dionysia.
  • Alexander left as Regent in Macedonia: his raid on Maedi and the foundation of Alexandropolis.
  • Philip’s campaign against Perinthus and Byzantium.

339 B.C.

  • September: Philip occupies Elatea.
  • Isocrates’ Panathenaicus.

338 ? B.C.

  • August 2: Battle of Chaeronea.
  • Alexander among ambassadors to Athens.
  • Philip marries Attalus’ niece Cleopatra.
  • Oylmpias and Alexander in exile.

337 B.C.

  • Spring: Hellenic League convened at Corinth.
  • Recall of Alexander to Pella.
  • Autumn: League at Corinth ratifies crusade to against Persia.

336 B.C.

  • Spring: Parmenoi and Attalus sent to Asia Minor for preliminary
  • military operations.
  • June: accession of Darius III Codomannus.
  • Cleopatra bears Philip a son.
  • Wedding of Alexander of Epirus to Olympia’s daughter.
  • Murder of Philip.
  • Alexander accedes to the throne of Macedonia.
  • Late summer: Alexander calls meeting of Hellenie League at
  • Corinth, confirmed as Captain-General of anti-Persian crusade.

335 B.C.

  • Early spring: Alexander goes north to deal with Thrace and Illyria.
  • Revolt of Thebes.

334 B.C.

  • Alexander and the attacking force cross into Asia Minor.
  • May: Battle of the Granicus.
  • General reorganization of Greek cities in Asia Minor.
  • Siege and capture of Miletus.
  • Autumn: reduction of Halicarnassus.
  • Alexander advances through Lycia and Pamphylia.

333 B.C.

  • Alexander’s column moves north to Celaenae and Gordium.
  • Death of Memnon.
  • Mustering of Persian forces in Babylon.
  • Episode of the Gordian Knot.
  • Alexander marches to Ancyra and thence south to Cilician Gates.
  • Darius moves westward from Babylon.
  • September: Alexander reaches Tarsus: his illness there.
  • Darius crosses the Euphrates.
  • ? Sept.-Oct.: Battle if Issus.
  • Alexander advances southward though Phoenicia.
  • Marathus: first peace-offer by Darius.

332 B.C.

  • ? January: submission of Byblos and Sidon.
  • Siege of Tyre begun.
  • ? June: second peace-offer by Darius refused.
  • July 29: fall of Tyre.
  • Sept.-Oct.: Gaza captured.
  • ? November 14: Alexander crowned as Pharaoh at Memphis.

331 B.C.

  • Early spring: visit to the Oracle of Ammon at Siwah.
  • ? April 7-8: foundation of Alexanderia.
  • Alexander returns to Tyre.
  • July-August: Alexander reaches Thapsacus on Euphrates; Darius moves his main forces from Babylon.
  • September 18: Alexander crosses the Tigris.
  • Darius’ final peace-offer rejected.
  • Sept. 30 or Oct. 1: Battle of Gaugamela.
  • Macedonians advance from Arbela on Babylon, which falls in mid-October.
  • Revolt of Agis defeated at Megalopolis.
  • Early December: Alexander occupies Susa unopposed.
  • Alexander forces Susian Gates.

330 B.C.

  • ? January: Alexander reaches and sacks Perseplis.
  • ? May : burning of temples etc. in Persepols.
  • Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
  • Darius retreats toward Bactria.
  • Greek allies dismissed at Ecbatana; Parmenio left behind there, with Harpalus as Treasurer.
  • Pursuit of Darius renewed, via Caspian Gates.
  • July; Darius found murdered near Hecatompylus.
  • Bessus establishes himself as ‘Great King’ in Bactria.
  • March for Hyrcania begins.
  • Late August: march to Drangiana.
  • The ‘conspiracy of Philotas’.
  • March though Arachosia to Parapamisidae.

329 B.C.

  • March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
  • April-May: Alexander advancing to Bactria; Bessus retreats across the Oxus.
  • June: Alexander reaches and crosses the Oxus; veterans and
  • Thessalian volunteers dismissed.
  • Surrender of Bessus.
  • Alexander advances to Maracanda.
  • Revolt of Spitamenes, annihilation of Macedonian detachment
  • Alexander takes up winter quarters at Zariaspa.
  • Execution of Bessus.

328 B.C.

  • Campaign against Spitamenes.
  • Autumn: murder of Cleitus the Black.
  • Defeat and death of Spitamenes.

327 B.C.

  • Spring: capture of the Soghdian Rock.
  • Alexander’s marriage to Roxane.
  • Recruitment of 30,000 Perisan ‘Successors’.
  • The ‘Pages Conspiracy’ and Callisthenes’ end.
  • Early summer: Alexander recrosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
  • Alexander reaches Nysa; the ‘Dionysus episode’.
  • Capture of Aornos.

326 B.C.

  • Advance to Taxila.
  • Battle of the Hydaspes (The Jhelum) against the rajah Porus.
  • Death of Bucephalas.
  • ? July: Mutiny at the Hyphasis.
  • Return to the Jhelum: reinforcements move down-river.
  • Campaign against Brahmin cities: Alexander seriously wounded.

325 B.C.

  • Revolt in Bactria: 3000 mercenaries loose in Asia.
  • Alexander reaches Patala, builds harbor and dockyards.
  • ? September: Alexander’s march through Gedrosian Desert.
  • Defection of Harpalus from Asia Minor to Greece.
  • The satrapal purge begins.
  • Nearchus and the fleet reach Harmozia, link up with Alexander at Salmous.
  • Arrival of Craterus form Drangiana.

324 B.C.

  • January: Nearches and fleet sent on to Susa.
  • The episode of Cyrus’ tomb.
  • Alexander returns to Persepolis.
  • Move to Susa, long halt there.
  • Spring: arrival of 30,000 trained Persian ‘Successors’.
  • The Susa mass-marriages.
  • March: the Exiles’ Decree and the Deification Decree.
  • Craterus appointed to succeed Antiparter as Regent, and convoy troops home.
  • Alexander moves from Susa to Ecbatana.
  • Death of Hephaestion.

323 B.C.

  • Assassination of Harpalus in Crete.
  • Alexander’s Campaign against the Cossaeans and return to Babylon.
  • Alexander explores Pallacopas Canal; his boat-trip through the marshes.
  • Arrival of Antipater’s son Cassander to negotiate with Alexander.
  • May 20/30: Alexander falls ill after a party; and dies on 10/11th June.

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