Alexander the Great Timeline
Alexander the Great Timeline
- Alexander born in Pella. The exact date in unknown, but probably either 20 or 26 July.
- Philip captures Potidaea.
- Parmenio defeats Paeonians and Illyrians.
- Demosthenes attacks idea of a ‘crusade against Persia’.
- Mid-summer: Philip captures Mathone: loses an eye in the battle.
- Artabazus and Memnon refugees with Philip, who now emerges as potential leader of crusade against Persia.
- Philip’s fleet harassing Athenian shipping.
- Demosthenes’ First Philippic.
- August: Philip captures Olynthus.
- Aeschines’ attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.
- March: embassy to Philip from Athens.
- Halus besieged by Parmeniio
- April: peace of Philocrates ratified.
- Second Athenian embassy held up till July.
- July: Philip occupies Thermopylae.
- August: Philip admitted to seat on Amphictyonic Council, and presides over Pythian Games.
- Isocrates publishes Philippus.
- Philip appointed Archon of Thessaly for life.
- Non-aggression pact between Philip and Artaxerxes Ochus.
- Trail and acquittal of Aeschines.
- Aristotle invited to Macedonia al Alexander’s tutor.
- Olympia’s brother Alexander succeeds to throne of Epirus with Philip’s backing.
- Congress of Allies meets in Athens.
- Demosthenes awarded gold crown at Dionysia.
- Alexander left as Regent in Macedonia: his raid on Maedi and the foundation of Alexandropolis.
- Philip’s campaign against Perinthus and Byzantium.
- September: Philip occupies Elatea.
- Isocrates’ Panathenaicus.
338 ? B.C.
- August 2: Battle of Chaeronea.
- Alexander among ambassadors to Athens.
- Philip marries Attalus’ niece Cleopatra.
- Oylmpias and Alexander in exile.
- Spring: Hellenic League convened at Corinth.
- Recall of Alexander to Pella.
- Autumn: League at Corinth ratifies crusade to against Persia.
- Spring: Parmenoi and Attalus sent to Asia Minor for preliminary
- military operations.
- June: accession of Darius III Codomannus.
- Cleopatra bears Philip a son.
- Wedding of Alexander of Epirus to Olympia’s daughter.
- Murder of Philip.
- Alexander accedes to the throne of Macedonia.
- Late summer: Alexander calls meeting of Hellenie League at
- Corinth, confirmed as Captain-General of anti-Persian crusade.
- Early spring: Alexander goes north to deal with Thrace and Illyria.
- Revolt of Thebes.
- Alexander and the attacking force cross into Asia Minor.
- May: Battle of the Granicus.
- General reorganization of Greek cities in Asia Minor.
- Siege and capture of Miletus.
- Autumn: reduction of Halicarnassus.
- Alexander advances through Lycia and Pamphylia.
- Alexander’s column moves north to Celaenae and Gordium.
- Death of Memnon.
- Mustering of Persian forces in Babylon.
- Episode of the Gordian Knot.
- Alexander marches to Ancyra and thence south to Cilician Gates.
- Darius moves westward from Babylon.
- September: Alexander reaches Tarsus: his illness there.
- Darius crosses the Euphrates.
- ? Sept.-Oct.: Battle if Issus.
- Alexander advances southward though Phoenicia.
- Marathus: first peace-offer by Darius.
- ? January: submission of Byblos and Sidon.
- Siege of Tyre begun.
- ? June: second peace-offer by Darius refused.
- July 29: fall of Tyre.
- Sept.-Oct.: Gaza captured.
- ? November 14: Alexander crowned as Pharaoh at Memphis.
- Early spring: visit to the Oracle of Ammon at Siwah.
- ? April 7-8: foundation of Alexanderia.
- Alexander returns to Tyre.
- July-August: Alexander reaches Thapsacus on Euphrates; Darius moves his main forces from Babylon.
- September 18: Alexander crosses the Tigris.
- Darius’ final peace-offer rejected.
- Sept. 30 or Oct. 1: Battle of Gaugamela.
- Macedonians advance from Arbela on Babylon, which falls in mid-October.
- Revolt of Agis defeated at Megalopolis.
- Early December: Alexander occupies Susa unopposed.
- Alexander forces Susian Gates.
- ? January: Alexander reaches and sacks Perseplis.
- ? May : burning of temples etc. in Persepols.
- Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
- Darius retreats toward Bactria.
- Greek allies dismissed at Ecbatana; Parmenio left behind there, with Harpalus as Treasurer.
- Pursuit of Darius renewed, via Caspian Gates.
- July; Darius found murdered near Hecatompylus.
- Bessus establishes himself as ‘Great King’ in Bactria.
- March for Hyrcania begins.
- Late August: march to Drangiana.
- The ‘conspiracy of Philotas’.
- March though Arachosia to Parapamisidae.
- March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
- April-May: Alexander advancing to Bactria; Bessus retreats across the Oxus.
- June: Alexander reaches and crosses the Oxus; veterans and
- Thessalian volunteers dismissed.
- Surrender of Bessus.
- Alexander advances to Maracanda.
- Revolt of Spitamenes, annihilation of Macedonian detachment
- Alexander takes up winter quarters at Zariaspa.
- Execution of Bessus.
- Campaign against Spitamenes.
- Autumn: murder of Cleitus the Black.
- Defeat and death of Spitamenes.
- Spring: capture of the Soghdian Rock.
- Alexander’s marriage to Roxane.
- Recruitment of 30,000 Perisan ‘Successors’.
- The ‘Pages Conspiracy’ and Callisthenes’ end.
- Early summer: Alexander recrosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
- Alexander reaches Nysa; the ‘Dionysus episode’.
- Capture of Aornos.
- Advance to Taxila.
- Battle of the Hydaspes (The Jhelum) against the rajah Porus.
- Death of Bucephalas.
- ? July: Mutiny at the Hyphasis.
- Return to the Jhelum: reinforcements move down-river.
- Campaign against Brahmin cities: Alexander seriously wounded.
- Revolt in Bactria: 3000 mercenaries loose in Asia.
- Alexander reaches Patala, builds harbor and dockyards.
- ? September: Alexander’s march through Gedrosian Desert.
- Defection of Harpalus from Asia Minor to Greece.
- The satrapal purge begins.
- Nearchus and the fleet reach Harmozia, link up with Alexander at Salmous.
- Arrival of Craterus form Drangiana.
- January: Nearches and fleet sent on to Susa.
- The episode of Cyrus’ tomb.
- Alexander returns to Persepolis.
- Move to Susa, long halt there.
- Spring: arrival of 30,000 trained Persian ‘Successors’.
- The Susa mass-marriages.
- March: the Exiles’ Decree and the Deification Decree.
- Craterus appointed to succeed Antiparter as Regent, and convoy troops home.
- Alexander moves from Susa to Ecbatana.
- Death of Hephaestion.
- Assassination of Harpalus in Crete.
- Alexander’s Campaign against the Cossaeans and return to Babylon.
- Alexander explores Pallacopas Canal; his boat-trip through the marshes.
- Arrival of Antipater’s son Cassander to negotiate with Alexander.
- May 20/30: Alexander falls ill after a party; and dies on 10/11th June.
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